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Solar Panel Inverters

What are solar panel inverters and how do they work?
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What are Solar Inverters?

Solar panels produce vast amounts of electricity. But none of it would be very useful to the average American without the help of solar panel inverters. Solar panels convert solar power into usable energy, so that appliances and equipment in U.S. homes can operate. Since solar panels are a big investment, you’ll want to make sure you have the best solar panel inverter for your home energy system.

Solar panels produce DC, or direct current power. This is good for things like LED lights, motors, and other low-power devices. However, most of the appliances and electronics used in a U.S. home run off AC electricity—or alternating current. In order for the power created by solar panels to be usable in most day-to-day activities, it has to be converted by an inverter first.

Modernize can help you better understand solar power inverters for your home solar energy system. Continue reading to learn how solar inverters work, different types of solar panel inverters and their pros and cons, energy efficiency, sizing, and more.

How Solar Panel Inverters Work

Solar panel inverters have several different jobs. All in all, they work to create a highly functional solar power system for your home. Here are the 4 different jobs that solar panel inverters have:


A diagram detailing how solar inverters work

1. Solar Power Inversion

The very first thing that solar inverters do is invert DC power, so that it functions as AC power (the type that U.S. homes use to operate). To do this, the device sends the power stream through a set of physical switches—usually MOSFET or IGBTs—and the power takes on the same alternating frequency as AC power used around the country. This isn’t the only thing that an inverter does, though.

2. Tracking Maximum Solar Power

During operation, a solar inverter keeps track of the maximum power produced by the panels. This is to boost efficiency of the system. Keep in mind that the maximum is constantly changing, thanks to varying temperature and sunlight conditions.

3. Solar Power Grid Detection

An inverter also has sensors to detect when the power grid is attached to home’s power lines, versus when it is not. This is a safety mechanism to help protect the power company. When the power grid isn’t connected properly, the inverter won’t feed any power to the home,  in fear of throwing power at transformers and causing unsafe conditions for utility workers.

4. Monitoring Solar Panel Conditions

Many solar panel inverters also serve as trackers for solar panels. They keep track of the amount of power produced by the panels throughout the day. This can help owners figure out when one panel is underperforming, so they can make the necessary corrections to keep it functioning at its best. Monitoring conditions can also help homeowners understand if selling excess electricity from solar panels is a viable option.

Multiple gray houses with one colored house that has solar panels.

Solar Inverter Types

There are two different types of solar inverters—the string inverter and the micro-inverter. Each type has its advantages — but when you pick between one or the other, you’re really choosing between cost and efficiency. Here are the different types of solar panel inverters:

1. String Inverters

When using a string inverter to convert your solar panel power to usable power for your home, only a single inverter is needed for a cluster of panels. Many people will only get one or two string inverters for their entire home – but some may require more. There are some benefits to setting up string inverters, but there are also some downsides as well.

Pros of Solar String Inverters

The main benefit of a string inverter setup is that it’s the most cost-effective way to convert DC energy to AC energy. For instance, if you have 20 solar panels, you’ll likely only need 4 or 5 string inverters to get the job done. Compared to the 20 micro-inverters needed, it’s much more affordable. String inverters are also known for their reliability, and will require less maintenance than micro-inverters since there are less of them to worry about.

Cons of Solar String Inverters

There are some downsides to string inverters however, and they could be a deal breaker for you. The first and most prominent downside is that the lowest producing panel in the string is equal to the maximum amount of energy every panel will supply. That means if one of the panels is under shade, all of the other panels will produce as if they, too, are in shade. That’s why many homes with shade issues do not use string inverters. Even for flat roofs without any shade, there will still be a lower efficiency level from the system than there would be with micro-inverters.

Another major downside of string inverters is that if one stops functioning properly, more power output will be lost than with micro-inverters. A single failure could stop your system from doing its job properly.

2. Solar Micro-Inverters

A solar micro-inverter is a compact inverter that is attached directly to a single solar panel. Often the inverter is built into the panel on the mounting system, or attached to the back of the panel. There is a single inverter for each solar panel used in the array. This allows AC power to be produced right at each panel, and then pooled into one power line for distribution.

Pros of Solar Micro-inverters

Micro-inverters have many benefits — we’ll start with the most dramatic one first. They offer improved power efficiency, and also help a solar array produce more usable power than an array connected to string inverters. This occurs regardless of the roof’s shape,  design, or location.

It’s also much easier to keep an eye on specific solar panels, since each one has its own inverter. This will allow you to see which panels are under-producing at a glance. It also means that maintenance will be easier to take care of on a panel-by-panel basis.

Micro-inverters tend to be more reliable than string inverters overall. Not in the sense that they break down less often than string inverters, but instead, they affect the array of solar panels less. If one micro-inverter breaks, it only puts one panel out of commission. If a string inverter breaks, it can stop five or more panels from doing their job.

Micro-inverters are much more effective when you have a roof that is not under optimal conditions. Whether you have shade from trees, a split roof that faces off in a few different directions, or you simply don’t have much south-facing roofline available — a micro-inverter setup can help you avoid power bottlenecks and efficiency loss that you would experience with a string inverter.

Cons of Solar Micro-Inverters

Micro-inverters have a few downsides to them, as well. The biggest drawback is the price difference between micro-inverters and string inverters. Micro-inverters are significantly more expensive to purchase and put in place. They also require more maintenance in general than string inverters do since there are more of them in place.

3. Power Optimizer Inverters

Power optimizers are an improvement compared to standard string inverters. They help create a more affordable solution than micro-inverters, as well. Anyone interested in solar power should think of this option as the middle-man. With power optimizers, each solar panel comes with an energy optimizer, which helps adjust the DC power from the panel without actually converting it.

A power optimizer splits up the solar panels more so they are not all connected in a series. If one of them is affected by a shadow, all the other panels will not have reduced solar output as a result. Power optimizers help boost efficiency of a string inverter setup, while being much more affordable than micro-inverters are.

Energy Efficiency & Solar Panel Inverters

Converting from DC to AC current is always going to waste some power. Most solar panel calculations figure that you’ll only be able to use around 85% of the power, at most. The amount of power that is wasted during the conversion process depends on the efficiency of the inverter.

While it’s important to consider the different types of solar inverters and their purposes, you also have to consider the efficiency of the unit itself. You can have different efficiencies in a range of string inverters and micro-inverters. If you want the most power production from your panels,  pay attention to how efficient each of the different inverters is in particular.

A contractor installs a solar panel onto a roof.

Solar Inverter Sizing

Solar inverters are rated to handle different power loads. This means you need to choose an inverter that matches your solar array.

Consider the size of the solar array you’re planning to install. Add up the total power that all the cells will produce at peak. Then, pick a solar panel inverter that can handle that power with no problem.

When choosing a solar panel inverter, consider the minimum number of watts it needs to function properly, as well as the maximum. It’s important to get something with a bit of wiggle room on either side. Choosing an inverter that can handle even more power is good if you think you might want to expand your array later on, without having to invest in another inverter.


Solar panel inverters are key to a successful solar power system. But getting the right one is not as simple as just picking out the part and adding it to your home. You have to take time to find the perfect combination of affordability and utility—and that’s something that’s often best left to professionals. Modernize can help you find the right contractor to get the job done efficiently, find payment options that work for your budget, and prepare for installation.

 

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